This portrait if from the Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale
File:Official Presidential portrait of Thomas Jefferson (by Rembrandt Peale, 1800).jpg
Created: 31 December 1799
For more information see the summary at this link:
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person’s official duties under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code. See Copyright.
Please note that I'm getting a higher volume of hits on this blog. If you can't get through to some of the websites listed below try again later as the readers may be hitting these sites with more frequency.
A.Thomas Jefferson's beer books he read were (free online) and am still reading these:
(when reading middle english the letter 's' is changed into 'f')
1.The London and Country Brewer (1736)
Summary: Interesting info, in this book, about how long hops should be boiled
2.The Theory and Practice of Brewing by Michael Comb Rune (1762)
Summary: Use of calcined oyster shells, salt of wormwood and unslacked lime described in the text was used to decrease the acidity of beer. It appears cream of tartar and sulfuric acid (oil of vitriol) was used to make a batch acidic. Treacle, crushed seeds of the Indian berry (Cocculus Indicus), Grains of Paradise or ginger strengthens beer.
3.The American Practical Brewer and Tanner (1815)
Summary: The malting of Indian corn, small beer, strong beer, Windsor ale, two-penny amber beer, London ale and porter are covered in this book.
Summary: This website is easier to use with the text broken into better organized categories.
B.Hints from the making of corn wine that has been passed down from:
1.Glancing over the book Colonial Spirits by Steven Grasse
Summary: Dandelion wine covered with some insights into how early wines were made
2.Corn wine recipe passed on through this German family:
Summary: Wine can use any fruit, vegetable or edible plant growing in the backyard such as corn, potatoes or dandelions. Boiling the food makes it "must". Sugar or honey were added for a 24 hour soaking - resulting with fermentables if honey is used. Wine yeast is soaked with orange juice to start it. Corn is strained; yeast, raisins and a tea bag are added. Racking off the sediment every month, up to 3 months, clarified the mixture and sugar or honey were continually added as needed. At least 6 months passed before it was bottled. Wait 6 months to taste. Other reading showed me that the raisins brought mouth feel and body; tea bags were the sterilizing, antibacterial method to this without adding campden tablets.
3.Another corn wine recipe from the rural south:
Summary: Creation of an unusual kitchen utensil is covered here. Author makes the "must" from just the cobs. Sugar water sits on the cobs for about 2 weeks in the dark. A sugar water mixture is created for the yeast. It is then filtered with cheesecloth or strainer and bottled. Bottles stay in the refrigerator for a week. After that, the wine can be kept in a cool place for 2 months.
C.Drafting my first real recipe for corn ale (use either steps #2, #3 or both #2 and #3 below)
1.Infusion by bringing whole corn cobs or corn to a boil, then slowly simmer 20-30 minutes, let cool and soak cobs in the juice (must) for 24 hours - use the whole corn & the cob
2.Soak in honey to break down the sugars (fermentables) after the cooking
3.Soak in the juice of oranges and/or lemons with the peeling zests (to introduce more fermentables, lower the pH to keep it from spoiling and bring about sterilization)
4.Mashing between 142 to 172, Mash out 175 (for corn)
5.Boil as usual for 1 hour
6.Tea bags in place of hops after the boil (chopped raisins for mouthfeel and body later)
7.Nottingham or Windsor Dry Yeast for an ale
8.Ferment 10 days (try honey later)
9.Bottle and age 3 weeks
10.Refrigerate 2 days before drinking
D.Summary of Additional Findings: 100% corn ale is possible. Corn wine recipes clearly show how to break the corn down; it comes really close to brewing when looking at these websites. Colonial people were not as concerned about getting the sugars from the corn because they added it as needed later. However, the enzymes from the honey would have broken the corn down more. Fruits such as oranges or lemons brought down the pH which may have helped in the brewing of beer. Those other fruits would have added fermentables and taken the place of the sulfur that is usually added to wine to preserve it.