Title: Die Gartenlaube
Publisher: Ernst Keil
Year of Publication: 1872
Place of publication: Leipzig
Description: Deutsch: Bild von Seite 777 der Zeitschrift Die Gartenlaube. Image from page 769 of journal Die Gartenlaube, 1872.
In einem Biergarten zu Straßburg. Originalzeichnung von L. Löffler.
English: Image from page 777 of book Die Gartenlaube, 1872.
Deutsch: Bildunterschrift: „In einem Biergarten zu Straßburg.
Originalzeichnung von L. Löffler.“
English: caption: "In einem Biergarten zu Straßburg.
Originalzeichnung von L. Löffler."
Source: Scan from the original work
Permission: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1923.
Refer to https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Die_Gartenlaube_(1872)_b_777.jpg for more information.
To the best of my ability, I've researched and summarzied these historical brewing methods. This raises new questions that it might benefit you to try some changes to your own future brews. I don't believe you have to follow these methods to the absolute letter. You might be able to create a better brew by just using some of the techniques. I've included a few things to try with your own brews at the end. Experiment! There is quite a lot of information here, but at the end, but at least see the check out the trings to try at the end. Questions? Concerns? Suggestions? Let me know in Facebook.
Decoction was recently covered in the Brulosophy blog. I've taken a portion of the wort out to almost a pan frying of the grains in low water 3 times, constantly stirring for almost 10 minutes each, and found I could get that caramel taste without hours necessary through a complete decoction. So, essentially, I've noticed a more caramel taste by adding this extra 1/2 hour to my brew routine and I never had to get scientific to hit all the higher temperature rests that have been necessary in a complete decoction.
A. Data comparison of several mashing techniques
Source from beer blog -
Summary - Sugar and alcohol was documented that came from the various methods of brewing. Scroll down to see the table data for both wort and the beer. Information comes from a German text called: "Jahresbericht über die Leistungen der chemischen Technologie"
Summary of Mash Results Comparison - Alcohol came from the Bock method with the next best coming from the Infusion method. Most of the sugar came from the Bock method with a second highest number from the English method. Most of the dextrin came from the Bock method followed by the English method as second best. (These methods are explained below)
Most of the brewing methods, summarized below, were from the Manual of Chemical Technology:
B. Definitions of winter and summer beer
Schenk or pot or winter beer was brewed by bottom-fermentation and not stored like lager. It is brewed from October to April when the thermometer is lower than 53 to 54 F. It is mashed at 158 to 167 degrees F. and ferments over 7-8 days. Winter beer was consumed 4 to 6 weeks after brewing for immediate consumption. One year old hops is added at 2 to 3 lbs to Bavarian bushel or 2.22 hectolitres of malt. (See conversion below)
This would have best worked with malty beers.
Lager or summer beer is mashed at 122 to 140 F. Lagers were fermented for 9-10 days and were stored or lagered in caves. For summer or lager beer, to be consumed in May and June, 4 to 5 lbs of new hops are added per Bavarian bushel of malt. For September and October consumption, 6 to 7 lbs new hops are to be added per Bavarian bushel.
C. Brew water used with winter and summer beer
100 parts malt were used for infusion to 202.3 parts water for both Schenk and Lager beer. So, about 1/3 of total volume was malt. If you didn't do infusions for 5 to 8 hours, just 1 hour for winter beer and 3/4 hour for summer beer is all that is really necessary.
100 parts malt, for other mashing methods, to 170 volumes water to make Schenk and 130 volumes to make Lager. So, when adding water it means about 37% of volume is malt in Schenk and 43% is malt in Lager beer.
This website shows graphs of fermentable sugars and nonfermentable sugars at 145 F and 160 F (close to the temps for winter and summer beer)
Now, you can see over 90% of the fermentable sugars come out after 80 minutes of mashing at 145 F. Whereas at 160 F, the maximum number of unfermentable sugars happen in about 18 minutes.
D. Various Brewing Methods
1.Decoction method - Ratio 1 volume of malt to 2 volumes of water. Stands first 6 to 8 hours. Then, portions taken out and boiled and put back in with rest of mash for 5 to 8 hours.
2.Thick Mash Boiling is Bavarian or Munich or Bock or the Boiling method - Mash stands for 2 to 4 hours, 1/3 of the water boiled and returned bringing temp to 86 to 104 F. First thick mash is to draw mashed grains to one side for thick mash brewing - 1/2 the wort used - schenk beer boiled for 30 minutes and summer beer boiled for 75. Added back gets to 118 to 122 F Second thick mash boiling, 1/2 the thin mash is boiled: schenk 75 min., summer for hour. Added back gets 140 to 144. Clear mashing or thin mash boiled for 15 minutes, put back into covered tun to get to 162 to 167 for 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Rumors of "hop roasting" or hop decoction may have been done in this last thin mash rather than with the Satz brewing method (below) as it has no thin mash step.
3.Augsburg-Nuremberg or Swabian method called "sediment brewing", (Satz brauen): 7 Bavarian bushels (see conversions below) to 30 to 35 eimers (each = 68.41 litres) (so, 542.160303 U.S. gallons to 632.5204 U.S. gallons) of water. Stands 4 hours, 2/3 of water drawn off and brought to boiling. Added back in to get temp of 122 to 126 F. Sits for 15 minutes.
All liquid (strain) is drawn off, boiled off and placed back in for first mash. Remaining liquid still straining off the grains is removed and placed in cooling vessel. Boiled water returned to mix with cooled water and added back to the pot to get 158 to 167 F. for the grains. Wait an hour and this is second mash, third mash is after this is done again. One could use 3 pots here: 1 for boiling, 1 for the cool water and the main pot to hold most of the grains.
4.Franconian or Bamberg method, malt added to water at 176 degrees to create temp at 140 to 145, stir and allow to stand short time, wort drawn off, boiled and brought in to get to a temp of 167, again mashed again and then stand for one hour.
5.Infusion, also known as the Bohemian method - no part of the mash is boiled, malt is treated with a water at temperature 158 to 167 F for Winter and 122 to 140 F for Summer. Procedures showed boiled water combined with cool water to reach proper temperatures before the malt was exposed to it. Today, we can reach it with a temperature dial on the stove and a thermometer.
Alternate instructions: Some other sources show 80% of the water removed and heated to the right temperature for winter or summer beer. Thick mashes are removed and heated to boiling for 30 minutes and added back in. Repeat same for 25 minutes and again at 20 minutes. In the process the grains should reach 167 F.
Other brewing methods were from Industrial Chemistry: A Manual For Use in Technical Colleges or Schools and For Manufacturers etc.:
6.The English method - Some ales tend to have more diacetyl. English breweries may use a gradual 16 hour cooling of the wort in the fermenter before yeast is added.
Clues to English method of sparging are here:
Using the English method of sparging, one would drain the wort from the grains without adding additional water. Second runnings were usually used for small beer to be drunk at mealtimes. In some cases, the small beer came from 3rd runnings. Small beer was a lighter beverage that was consumed at meal times.
Cool the wort rapidly or the wort may get lactic acid fermentation from temperature 77 to 86 F from gradual cooling. Yeast would be added 16 hours after the gradual cooling. Experiments might help to find the best souring temp at room temp or a basement for those 16 hour cooling attempts. This English souring may help to produce the Berliner Weisse, Flanders red ale (descendent of 17th English porters per Wikipedia), Gose and Lambics.
Source was online book -
Full Disclosure of the Method of Brewing English Dry Lager Beer: By the top fermentation system, and without the use of Ice:
Most of the mashing appears to be adding more and more water at hotter temperatures and then letting it have a cool down.
Source was online book -
The English System of Brewing Ale here:
It appears it is a soaking of the malt from 170 F and cools naturally before, 2nd runnings get 185 F and then 170 to 180 F for 3rd runnings to get small beer.
A number of ideas are out there regarding double dropping, 2-tier systems and 2 floor chambers that may not be convenient for the homebrewer to try. This website gives us hints about the English method:
This is an older medieval method for creating English ales. You can see the basic technique from the first recipe for a weak ale. The first recipe shows the long mash stand and a long cool down period that went into the English method.
E. Conversions of measurements
Source of conversions is this website -
A Bavarian bushel was 2.22 hectoliters or about 6.3 U.S bushels dry measure for malt. This is about 403.2 pints. Using ratios, the examples above would be:
2lbs old hops to 403.2 pints (Bavarian Bushel) is about .08 ounces or 2.3 grams per pint of malt. The 4 lbs new hops would be twice that: 0.16 ounce or about 4.6 grams per pint.
F. Ideas to experiment with on your own future brews
1. Long soak of grains in brew water may help to give the beer a smooth, rich taste much like coffee grains are cold soaked today. Just soaking my black malts might help to get rid of bitteness and then I could add them after the boil of the other grains before fermenting.
2. Some of the decoction method can be used: pull a small batch of thick mash out with a little water to bring to a boil. If it gets dry add more brew water as you don't want to burn grains. Keep stirring for 10 minutes each at least 3 times to bring out that caramel tastte.
3. Try your own version of the Munich method above - do the boiling and don't worry if you can't hit the temperatures after you add the hotter water back to the malt. You can use the stove to compensate. Try a hops roasting or decoction in the end. With all the boiling going on during the mash, you may be able to cut your boiling time later on.
4. When my brew shop gave us training they had us try to hit the 150's in temperature during the mash for about an hour. I will just try to 167 F, take it off the burner, wait 10 minutes and come back to raise to it to 167 F again. I will try this for 60 minutes and then for 90 to see if it makes a difference.
5. Try sparging just the first runnings sometime and you will shorten your brewing time with a 15 minute straining of grains after mashing.
6. A long gradual cooldown may help with creating a sour beer.
Have fun. Experiment. Use of a homebrewer's insulated mash tun cooler may help with the heat loss if you are looking to try the methods right to the letter. Those using steel pots may loose heat much quicker and may have to compensate by checking the temperature and adjusting the heat on the stove.